Blood Res  
A general view of CD33+ leukemic stem cells and CAR-T cells as interesting targets in acute myeloblatsic leukemia therapy
Ezzatollah Fathi1, Raheleh Farahzadi2, Roghayeh Sheervalilou3, Zohreh Sanaat2, Ilja Vietor4
1Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tabriz, 2Hematology and Oncology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, 3Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran, 4Division of Cell Biology, Biocenter, Medical University Innsbruck, Innrain, Innsbruck, Austria
Correspondence to: Raheleh Farahzadi, Ph.D.
Hematology and Oncology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz 5166614731, Iran
E-mail: farahzadir@tbzmed.ac.ir
Published online: March 24, 2020.
© The Korean Journal of Hematology. All rights reserved.

Abstract
Acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) is the most frequent acute leukemia in adulthood with very poor overall survival rates. In the past few decades, significant progresses had led to the findings of new therapeutic approaches and the better understanding of the molecular complexity of this hematologic malignancy. Leukemic stem cells (LSCs) play a key role in the initiation, progression, regression, and drug resistance of different types of leukemia. The cellular and molecular characteristics of LSCs and their mechanism in the development of leukemia had not yet been specified. Therefore, determining their cellular and molecular characteristics and creating new approaches for targeted therapy of LSCs is crucial for the future of leukemia research. For this reason, the recognition of surface maker targets on the cell surface of LSCs has attracted much attention. CD33 has been detected on blasts in most AML patients, making them an interesting target for AML therapy. Genetic engineering of T cells with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR-T cell therapy) is a novel therapeutic strategy. It extends the range of antigens available for use in adoptive T-cell immunotherapy. This review will focus on CAR-T cell approaches as well as monoclonal antibody (mAB)-based therapy, the two antibody-based therapies utilized in AML treatment.
Keywords: Acute myeloblastic leukemia, Cancer stem cells, CD33+ leukemic stem cells, mAB-based therapy, CAR-T cell, CAR-T cell immunotherapy


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