Hyery KimBlood Res 2020; 55(S1): S5-S13
Abstract : In recent decades, survival rates for childhood acute myeloid leukemia have remarkably improved, owing to chemotherapy intensification, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and improved supportive care. Furthermore, treatment protocols have evolved and are currently better matched to prognostic factors and treatment responses. Recently, new molecular prognostic factors were discovered via leukemia genomic studies. Moreover, new tumor subtypes with independent gene expression profiles have been characterized. To broaden the therapeutic options for patients with poor prognoses, therapies that target specific candidate mutations are being identified. Additionally, new drugs are undergoing clinical trials, and immunotherapy is attracting significant interest as a treatment option for recurrent or refractory childhood acute myeloid leukemia.
Silvia Park, Byung Sik Cho, Hee-Je KimBlood Res 2020; 55(S1): S14-S18
Abstract : Despite expanding knowledge in the molecular landscape of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and an increasing understanding of leukemogenic pathways, little has changed in the treatment of AML in the last 40 years. Since introduction in the 1970s, combination chemotherapy consisting of anthracycline and cytarabine has been the mainstay of treatment, with major therapeutic advances based on improving supportive care rather than the introduction of novel therapeutics. Over the last decades, there have been extensive efforts to identify specific target mutations or pathways with the aim of improving clinical outcomes. Finally, after a prolonged wait, we are witnessing the next wave of AML treatment, characterized by a more “precise” and “personalized” understanding of the unique molecular or genetic mapping of individual patients. This new trend has since been further facilitated, with four new FDA approvals granted in 2017 in AML therapeutics. Currently, a total of eight targeted agents have been approved since 2017 (as of Jan. 2020). In this review, we will briefly discuss these newer agents in the context of their indication and the basis of their approval.
In-Suk KimBlood Res 2020; 55(S1): S19-S26
Abstract : Minimal residual disease (MRD) monitoring has proven to be one of the fundamental independent prognostic factors for patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Sequential monitoring of MRD using sensitive and specific methods, such as real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) or flow cytometry (FCM), has improved the assessment of treatment response and is currently used for therapeutic stratification and early detection. Although both FCM and qPCR yield highly consistent results with sensitivities of 10‒4, each method has several limitations. For example, qPCR is time-consuming and laborious: designing primers that correspond to the immunoglobulin (IG) and T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangements at diagnosis can take 3‒4 weeks. In addition, the evolution of additional clones beyond the first or index clone during therapy cannot be detected, which might lead to false-negative results. FCM requires experienced technicians and sometimes does not achieve a sensitivity of 10‒4. Accordingly, a next generation sequencing (NGS)-based method has been developed in an attempt to overcome these limitations. With the advent of high-throughput NGS technologies, a more in-depth analysis of IG and/or TCR gene rearrangements is now within reach, which impacts all applications of IG/TR analysis. However, standardization, quality control, and validation of this new technology are warranted prior to its incorporation into routine practice.
Jae Wook LeeBlood Res 2020; 55(S1): S27-S31
Abstract : Adolescents and young adults (AYA) with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have worse prognosis than children. Differing biology of ALL may account for some of this disparity in outcome, with AYA patients having far lower incidence of good risk cytogenetic abnormalities, and higher proportion of patients with genetic lesions associated with inferior survival such as Ph-like ALL. Actual chemotherapy may also contribute to differences in outcome. Retrospective studies have shown that AYA patients treated on pediatric-based regimens had higher survival than those treated with adult regimens; the superiority of pediatric protocols has also been proven in several prospective comparative trials. Increase in rate of enrollment of AYA patients in clinical trials may further improve outcome. Cure based on chemotherapy may further limit the role of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in AYA patients. The unique biology of AYA ALL may allow for novel methods of targeted therapy, while immunotherapy, the efficacy of which has been proven for both children and adults, may also play a major role in the treatment of relapsed/refractory ALL.
Han-Seung ParkBlood Res 2020; 55(S1): S32-S36
Abstract : Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is an aggressive hematological disease. The incorporation of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) into the standard treatment regimen for Philadelphia (Ph)-positive ALL significantly improved clinical outcomes. TKI-based induction chemotherapy, followed by allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) during the first complete remission (CR), is the standard of care for ALL patients. However, treatment with TKIs alone or TKIs plus low-intensity chemotherapy can achieve CR in some patients. Although this strategy is not enough to induce a deeper molecular response, it can reduce the incidence of treatment-related mortality. Despite promising results from pediatric trials, allogeneic HCT remains an important component of the treatment strategy for Ph-positive adult ALL. However, improving the highly sensitive BCR-ABL1 assays and introducing immunotherapy may decrease the demand for allogeneic HCT. Nevertheless, the treatment of Ph-positive ALL is still challenging, especially in cases with relapsed and refractory disease. Potent TKIs and monoclonal antibodies, such as blinatumomab and inotuzumab, have improved patient outcomes in relapse and refractory cases of ALL. The introduction of effective agents, such as potent TKIs and monoclonal antibodies, may improve the possibility of remission in Ph-positive ALL patients and hopefully cure this disease.
Sung-Hoon Jung, Jae-Cheol Jo, Ga-Young Song, Seo-Yeon Ahn, Deok-Hwan Yang, Jae-Sook Ahn, Hyeoung-Joon Kim, Je-Jung LeeBlood Res 2020; 55(S1): S37-S42
Abstract : Since the introduction of an alkylator to the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM), new effective agents have been developed, such as immunomodulatory drugs including thalidomide, lenalidomide, and pomalidomide; proteasome inhibitors including bortezomib, carfilzomib, and ixazomib; monoclonal antibodies including daratumumab and elotuzumab; and deacetylase inhibitors including panobinostat. Numerous regimens with these new agents have been developed and they have contributed in improving survival outcomes in MM patients. In addition, the recommended therapies for newly diagnosed MM change every year based on the results of clinical trials. This review will discusses the appropriate induction therapies based on recent clinical trials for patients with newly diagnosed MM.
Ji Hyun Lee, Sung-Hyun KimBlood Res 2020; 55(S1): S43-S53
Abstract : The therapeutic strategy for relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) integrates a holistic approach regarding patient, disease, and drug-related factors. Patient-related factors include age, frailty status, and underlying comorbidities, especially cardiovascular and renal diseases and peripheral neuropathies that affect tolerability to multiple drug combinations or transplantations. Disease-related factors encompass these multiple patient-related factors, particularly the aggressiveness of the disease and cytogenetics. Regarding drug-related factors, the approval of novel proteasome inhibitors (such as carfilzomib and ixazomib), immunomodulatory agents (such as pomalidomide), monoclonal antibodies (such as daratumumab and elotuzumab), and new classes of drugs increasingly makes the choice treatment more complex and necessitates a comprehensive summary and an update of the efficacy and toxicities of each antimyeloma drug and its combinations. Further, careful monitoring of the side effects and supportive care throughout the course of treatment are important to achieve better outcomes for patients with RRMM.
Youngil KohBlood Res 2020; 55(S1): S54-S57
Abstract : Light chain (AL) amyloidosis is a disease in which malignant plasma cell clones affect multiple organs including the heart and kidney. The mechanism for organ function deterioration in AL amyloidosis differs from multiple myeloma. Thus, not all agents used to treat multiple myeloma shows similar efficacy in AL amyloidosis. In AL amyloidosis, both hematologic and organ responses after treatment are important to improve the clinical outcome. Especially, improving heart function is one of the key aspects in the treatment of AL amyloidosis. With recent advances in the understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanism of AL amyloidosis, novel treatment methods are under active trial. In this article, I have reviewed the advances in pathophysiology, diagnosis, risk stratification, and treatment of AL amyloidosis.
Yoon Seok ChoiBlood Res 2020; 55(S1): S58-S62
Abstract : Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare subtype of extranodal lymphoma primarily involving the brain, spinal cord, or leptomeninges. PCNSL is associated with a relatively poor prognosis compared to other extranodal diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. However, methotrexate-based induction chemotherapy followed by consolidative chemotherapy or high-dose therapy and autologous stem cell transplantation has improved the survival outcome, together with reduced neurotoxicity. Recent studies found that aberrant activation of the B-cell receptor-signaling pathway and activation of the NF-κB are frequent genetic alterations and could be good targets for the treatment of PCNSL. Herein, we have reviewed the current status and recent advances in the biology and management of PCNSL.
Seong Hyun JeongBlood Res 2020; 55(S1): S63-S71
Abstract : Extranodal natural killer (NK)/T cell lymphoma (ENKTL) is a distinct subtype of Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma mainly involving the nasal area. Since the entity was first recognized, treatment strategies have been evolving from anthracycline-based chemotherapy and radiotherapy to L-asparaginase containing regimens and recently immune checkpoint inhibitors. With the currently used combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy, more than 70% of patients with localized disease can be cured. L-asparaginase containing regimens have significantly improved treatment outcomes among patients with advanced disease. However, the treatment outcomes of patients with disease refractory to L-asparaginase containing regimens or who experience recurrence remain poor. In this article, we cover the current treatments for ENKTL and emerging treatment approaches.
Nisha Marwah, Manali Satiza, Niti Dalal, Sudhir Atri, Monika Gupta, Sunita Singh, Rajeev SenBlood Res 2021;56: 26-30
Junshik Hong, Seo-Yeon Ahn, Yoo Jin Lee, Ji Hyun Lee, Jung Woo Han, Kyoung Ha Kim, Ho-Young Yhim, Seung-Hyun Nam, Hee-Jin Kim, Jaewoo Song, Sung-Hyun Kim, Soo-Mee Bang, Jin Seok Kim, Yeung-Chul Mun, Sung Hwa Bae, Hyun Kyung Kim, Seongsoo Jang, Rojin Park, Hyoung Soo Choi, Inho Kim, Doyeun Oh; on behalf of the Korean Society of Hematology Thrombosis and Hemostasis Working PartyBlood Res 2021;56: 6-16
Yu Ri Kim, Dae-Young KimBlood Res 2021;56: S17-S25
Seyed Mohammad Sadegh Pezeshki, Najmadin Saki, Mehran Varnaseri Ghandali, Alireza Ekrami, Arshid Yousefi AvarvandBlood Res 2021;56: 38-43