Meerim ParkBlood Res 2021; 56(S1): S34-S38
Abstract : Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) refers to a heterogeneous group of clonal blood disorders characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis, cytopenia, dysplasia, and an increased risk of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). A growing number of inherited genetic loci that contribute to MDS/AML development are rapidly being identified. As genetic sequencing has become increasingly integrated into clinical practice, clearly defined syndromes have emerged, known as the MDS/AML predisposition syndrome. With more patients and families being identified with predisposing conditions, knowledge of the approach of evaluating and managing MDS with genetic predisposition is increasingly essential. This article reviews MDS with genetic predisposition and the practical aspects of management in patients with predisposition syndrome.
Jee-Soo Lee, Sung Im Cho, Sung Sup Park, Moon-Woo SeongBlood Res 2021; 56(S1): S39-S43
Abstract : Thalassemia is characterized by the impaired synthesis of globin chains due to disease-causing variants in α- or β-globin genes. In this review, we provide an overview of the molecular basis underlying α- and β-thalassemia, and of the current technologies used to characterize these disease-causing variants for the diagnosis of thalassemia. Understanding these molecular basis and technologies will prove to be beneficial for the accurate diagnosis of thalassemia.
Seug Yun Yoon, Jong-Ho WonBlood Res 2021; 56(S1): S44-S50
Abstract : Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are clonal hematopoietic stem cell malignancies. Chronic inflammation and a dysregulated immune system are central to the pathogenesis and progression of MPNs. Interferon alpha (IFNα) was first used for the treatment of MPNs approximately 40 years ago. It has significant antiviral effects and plays a role in anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic, and immunomodulatory responses. IFNα is an effective drug that can simultaneously induce significant rates of clinical, hematological, molecular, and histopathological responses, suggesting that the disease may be cured in some patients. However, its frequent dosage and toxicity profile are major barriers to its widespread use. Pegylated IFNα (peg-IFNα), and more recently, ropeginterferon alpha-2b (ropeg-IFNα-2b), are expected to overcome these drawbacks. The objective of this article is to discuss the clinical role of IFNα in Philadelphia-negative MPNs through a review of recent studies. In particular, it is expected that new IFNs, such as peg-IFNα and ropeg-IFNα-2b, with lower rates of discontinuation due to fewer adverse effects, will play important clinical roles.
Yoon Hwan ChangBlood Res 2021; 56(S1): S51-S64
Abstract : Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a heterogeneous group of clonal hematological neoplasms characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis, morphologic dysplasia, and cytopenia. MDS overlap syndromes include various disorders, such as myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms and hypoplastic MDS with aplastic anemia characteristics. MDS overlap syndromes share the characteristics of other diseases, which make differential diagnoses challenging. Advances in genomic studies have led to the discovery of frequent mutations in MDS and overlap syndromes; however, most of the mutations are not specific for the diagnosis of these diseases. The molecular characteristics of the overlap syndromes usually do not show a just “in-between” form but rather heterogeneous features. Established diagnostic criteria for these diseases based on clinical, morphologic, and laboratory features are still useful when combined with genomic data. It is expected that further studies for MDS and overlap syndromes will place emphasis on the roles of mutations as therapeutic targets and prognostic indicators.
Jin Kyung Suh, Sunghan Kang, Hyery Kim, Ho Joon Im, Kyung-Nam KohBlood Res 2021; 56(S1): S65-S69
Abstract : Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is the most common histiocytic disorder caused by the clonal expansion of myeloid precursors that differentiate into CD1a+/CD207+ cells in the lesion. Advances in genomic sequencing techniques have improved our understanding of the pathophysiology of LCH. Activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is a key molecular mechanism involved in the development of LCH. Recurrent BRAF mutations and MAP2K1 mutations are the major molecular alterations involved in the activation of the MAPK pathway. Recent studies have supported the “misguided myeloid differentiation model” of LCH, where the extent of disease is defined by the differentiation stage of the cell in which the activating somatic MAPK mutation occurs, suggesting LCH. Several studies have advocated the efficacy of targeted therapy using BRAF inhibitors with a high response rate, especially in patients with high-risk or refractory LCH. However, the optimal treatment scheme for children remains unclear. This review outlines recent advances in LCH, focusing on understanding the molecular pathophysiology, emerging targeted therapy options, and their clinical implications.
Yoon Seok ChoiBlood Res 2021; 56(S1): S70-S74
Abstract : The goal of cancer immunotherapy is to restore and optimize the immune response against malignant clones through several stages, from recognition of tumor antigens to establishment of long-lived memory cell populations. Boosting the intrinsic anti-tumor immune responses of the patients’ own, several types of “active immunotherapies” have been tried in many types of malignancies, inspired by successful experiences of immune checkpoint inhibition even in Hodgkin lymphoma. However, in B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas, clinical usefulness of such “active immunotherapies” is relatively unsatisfactory considering the remarkable advances in “passive immunotherapy,” including CD19-targeting chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy. Understanding how tumor cells and immune cells interact and contribute to immune evasion processes in the tumor microenvironment (TME) is an important prerequisite for the successful restoration of anti-tumor immune responses. In this review, a recent understanding of the biology of the immune tumor microenvironment surrounding B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas will be introduced. In addition, novel therapeutic approaches targeting the immune microenvironment other than immune checkpoint blockade are discussed.
Youngil KohBlood Res 2021; 56(S1): S75-S79
Abstract : Next generation sequencing (NGS) technology has revealed the heterogeneity of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) from a mutation perspective. Accordingly, the conventional cell of origin-based classification of DLBCL has changed to a mutation-based classification. Mutation analysis delineates that B-cell receptor pathway activation, EZH2 mutation, and NOTCH mutations are distinctive drivers of DLBCL. Moreover, the combination of RNA expression data and DNA mutation results suggests similarity between DLBCL subtypes and other non-Hodgkin lymphomas. NGS-based dissection of DLBCL would be the cornerstone for precision treatment in this heterogeneous disease in the near future.
Junshik Hong, Seo-Yeon Ahn, Yoo Jin Lee, Ji Hyun Lee, Jung Woo Han, Kyoung Ha Kim, Ho-Young Yhim, Seung-Hyun Nam, Hee-Jin Kim, Jaewoo Song, Sung-Hyun Kim, Soo-Mee Bang, Jin Seok Kim, Yeung-Chul Mun, Sung Hwa Bae, Hyun Kyung Kim, Seongsoo Jang, Rojin Park, Hyoung Soo Choi, Inho Kim, Doyeun Oh; on behalf of the Korean Society of Hematology Thrombosis and Hemostasis Working PartyBlood Res 2021; 56(1): 6-16
Abstract : Venous thromboembolism (VTE), which includes pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis, is a condition characterized by abnormal blood clot formation in the pulmonary arteries and the deep venous vasculature. It is often serious and sometimes even fatal if not promptly and appropriately treated. Moreover, the later consequences of VTE may result in reduced quality of life. The treatment of VTE depends on various factors, including the type, cause, and patient comorbidities. Furthermore, bleeding may occur as a side effect of VTE treatment. Thus, it is necessary to carefully weigh the benefits versus the risks of VTE treatment and to actively monitor patients undergoing treatment. Asian populations are known to have lower VTE incidences than Western populations, but recent studies have shown an increase in the incidence of VTE in Asia. A variety of treatment options are currently available owing to the introduction of direct oral anticoagulants. The current VTE treatment recommendation is based on evidence from previous studies, but it should be applied with careful consideration of the racial, genetic, and social characteristics in the Korean population.
Mohammad Masoud Eslami, Ramazan Rezaei, Sara Abdollahi, Afshin Davari, Mohammad AhmadvandBlood Res 2021; 56(1): 17-25
Abstract : The association between the risk of allograft rejection after organ transplantation and FAS gene polymorphism has been evaluated previously. However, inconsistent results have been reported. Hence, we conducted the most up-to-date meta-analysis to evaluate this association. All eligible studies reporting the association between FAS-670A＞G polymorphism and the risk of allograft rejection published up to December 2019 were extracted using a comprehensive systematic database search in the Web of Science, Scopus, and PubMed. The pooled odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated to determine the association strength. This meta-analysis included six case-control studies with 277 patients who experienced allograft rejection and 1,001 patients who did not experience allograft rejection (controls) after organ transplantation. The overall results showed no significant association between FAS-670A＞G polymorphism and the risk of allograft rejection in five genetic models (dominant model: OR=0.81, 95% CI=0.58‒1.12; recessive model: OR=0.10, 95% CI=0.80‒1.53; allelic model: OR=0.96, 95% CI=0.79‒1.18; GG vs. AA: OR=0.92, 95% CI=0.62‒1.36; and AG vs. AA: OR=0.75, 95% CI=0.52‒1.08). Moreover, subgroup analysis according to ethnicity and age did not reveal statistically significant results. Our findings suggest that FAS-670A＞G polymorphism is not associated with the risk of allograft rejection after organ transplantation.
Sang Mee HwangBlood Res 2020; 55(S1): S1-S4
Abstract : The World Health Organization (WHO) Classification of Tumors of Hematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues was revised in 2017 on the basis of recent high-throughput sequencing and gene expression data on hematologic malignancies. This review explores the current WHO classification of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and related precursor neoplasms, highlighting the changes made in the current edition and focusing on the diagnosis of AML.
Nisha Marwah, Manali Satiza, Niti Dalal, Sudhir Atri, Monika Gupta, Sunita Singh, Rajeev SenBlood Res 2021;56: 26-30
Junshik Hong, Seo-Yeon Ahn, Yoo Jin Lee, Ji Hyun Lee, Jung Woo Han, Kyoung Ha Kim, Ho-Young Yhim, Seung-Hyun Nam, Hee-Jin Kim, Jaewoo Song, Sung-Hyun Kim, Soo-Mee Bang, Jin Seok Kim, Yeung-Chul Mun, Sung Hwa Bae, Hyun Kyung Kim, Seongsoo Jang, Rojin Park, Hyoung Soo Choi, Inho Kim, Doyeun Oh; on behalf of the Korean Society of Hematology Thrombosis and Hemostasis Working PartyBlood Res 2021;56: 6-16
Yu Ri Kim, Dae-Young KimBlood Res 2021;56: S17-S25
Seyed Mohammad Sadegh Pezeshki, Najmadin Saki, Mehran Varnaseri Ghandali, Alireza Ekrami, Arshid Yousefi AvarvandBlood Res 2021;56: 38-43