Review Highlights

  • Review Article2023-04-30

    3 2683 786

    Novel therapeutic strategies for essential thrombocythemia/polycythemia vera

    Seug Yun Yoon, Jong-Ho Won

    Blood Res 2023; 58(S1): S83-S89
    Abstract

    Abstract : Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are clonal disorders of hematopoietic stem cells; these include polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET), and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). MPNs are inflammatory cancers, wherein the malignant clone generates cytokines that sustain the inflammatory drive in a self-perpetuating vicious cycle. The course of MPNs follows a biological continuum, that is, from early cancer stages (ET/PV) to advanced myelofibrosis as well as impending leukemic transformation. MPN-related symptoms, e.g., fatigue, general weakness, and itching, are caused by inflammatory cytokines. Thrombosis and bleeding are also exacerbated by inflammatory cytokines in patients with MPN. Until recently, the primary objective of ET and PV therapy was to increase survival rates by preventing thrombosis. However, several medications have recently demonstrated the ability to modify the course of the disease; symptom relief is expected for most patients. In addition, there is increasing interest in the active treatment of patients at low risk with PV and ET. This review focuses on the ET/PV treatment strategies as well as novel treatment options for clinical development.

  • Review Article2023-04-30

    8 1396 824

    Plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasms

    Yoo Jin Lee, Youjin Kim, Sang Hyuk Park, Jae-Cheol Jo

    Blood Res 2023; 58(S1): S90-S95
    Abstract

    Abstract : Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are type I interferon-producing cells that modulate immune responses. There are two types of pDC neoplasms: 1) mature pDC proliferation (MPDCP) associated with myeloid neoplasm and 2) blastic pDC neoplasm (BPDCN). MPDCP is a clonal expansion of mature pDCs that is predominantly associated with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia. In contrast, BPDCN is a clinically aggressive myeloid malignancy involving the skin, bone marrow, lymphatic organs, and central nervous system. There are various types of skin lesions, ranging from solitary brown or violaceous to disseminated cutaneous lesions, which often spread throughout the body. The expression of CD4, CD56, CD123, and pDC markers (TCL-1, TCF4, CD303, and CD304, etc.) are typical immunophenotype of BPDCN. Historically, BPDCN treatment has been based on acute leukemia regimens and allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in selected patients. Recent advances in molecular biology and genetics have led to the development of targeted agents, such as tagraxofusp (a recombinant fusion protein targeting CD123), anti-CD123 CAR-T cells, XmAb14045, and IMGN632. Lastly, this review provides a comprehensive overview of pDC neoplasms.

  • Review Article2023-04-30

    2 2478 629

    Recent advances in diagnosis and therapy in systemic mastocytosis

    Hyun Jung Lee

    Blood Res 2023; 58(S1): S96-S108
    Abstract

    Abstract : Mastocytosis is a heterogeneous neoplasm characterized by accumulation of neoplastic mast cells in various organs. There are three main types: cutaneous mastocytosis (CM), systemic mastocytosis (SM), and mast cell sarcoma. CM mainly affects children and is confined to the skin, whereas SM affects adults and is characterized by extracutaneous involvement, with or without cutaneous involvement. Most cases of SM have an indolent clinical course; however, some types of SM have aggressive behavior and a poor prognosis. Recent advances in the understanding of the molecular changes in SM have changed the diagnosis and treatment of aggressive and advanced SM subtypes. The International Consensus Classification and World Health Organization refined the diagnostic criteria and classification of SM as a result of accumulation of clinical experience and advances in molecular diagnostics. Somatic mutations in the KIT gene, most frequently KIT D816V, are detected in 90% of patients with SM. Expression of CD30 and any KIT mutation were introduced as minor diagnostic criteria after the introduction of highly sensitive screening methods. SM has a wide spectrum of clinical features, and only a few drugs are effective at treating advanced SM. Currently, the mainstay of SM treatment is limited to the management of chronic symptoms related to release of mast cell mediators. Small-molecule kinase inhibitors targeting the KIT-downstream and KIT-independent pathways were recently approved for treating advanced SM. I describe recent advances in diagnosis of SM, and review the currently available and emerging therapeutic options for SM management.

  • Review Article2023-04-30

    1 1247 342

    Treatment after failure of frontline therapy of chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase including allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    Jieun Uhm

    Blood Res 2023; 58(S1): S109-S113
    Abstract

    Abstract : The treatment outcomes of chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase (CML-CP) have dramatically improved with comparable life-expectancy to average of general population in tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) era. However, less than a half of patients who started with TKI can remain on frontline TKI. The reasons of switching TKI can be either intolerance or the lack of efficacy. Although a kinase domain (KD) mutation can guide to select salvage TKI from the point of view on the efficacy of TKIs, many factors need to be considered before choosing next-line TKI such as the high-risk features of CML, the adverse events with prior TKI, and the comorbidities of patients. The therapeutic options for CML-CP after failing frontline TKI due to treatment failure or suboptimal responses will be reviewed including allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

  • Review Article2023-03-31

    1 1946 501

    Effects of immune system cells in GvHD and corresponding therapeutic strategies

    Maryam Jadid Tavaf, Mahboobeh Ebrahimi Verkiani, Fateme Poorhoseini Hanzaii, Mina Soufi Zomorrod

    Blood Res 2023; 58(1): 2-12
    Abstract

    Abstract : Allogeneic tissue transplantation is one of the most effective treatments for several diseases and injuries, in particular, malignant and non-malignant hematological conditions. Following this procedure, transplanted tissue encounters various complications, one of the most serious being graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). The management of GvHD directly affects the success of transplantation and the survival rate of the patient; therefore, many studies have focused on GvHD prevention and control. This review briefly explains the transplantation process, causes of graft rejection, and importance of the human leukocyte antigen system. Initially, we address the pathophysiology and immunobiology of GvHD, the cells involved in this complication, the differences between chronic and acute GvHD, and the importance of graft-versus-leukemia. Interestingly, various types of immune cells are involved in GvHD pathogenesis. After explaining how these cells affect the GvHD process, we discuss the studies conducted to control and reduce GvHD symptoms.

  • Review Article2023-03-31

    1 1769 207

    The impact of COVID-19 on acute myeloid leukemia patients undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation: a concise review

    Reham Osama Mansour, Shaimaa El-Ashwah, May Denewer

    Blood Res 2023; 58(1): 13-19
    Abstract

    Abstract : This study aimed to delineate the possible impact of COVID-19 on acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients in terms of diagnosis, chemotherapy, bone marrow transplant, and vaccination response. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation is markedly affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, as both donors and recipients must be healthy for transplantation to be feasible and successful. Delays in the identification of well-matched donors have been predicted, and represent a special challenge. Therefore, future donors should be tested for COVID-19. The outcome of delayed transplantation is vague and masked by variations in stem cell source along with disease subtype. However, if transplant delay results in recurrence of minimal residual disease, a negative impact on survival is anticipated.

  • Review Article2022-06-30

    4 3474 736

    Korean clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis of hereditary hemolytic anemia

    Hee Won Chueh, Sang Mee Hwang, Ye Jee Shim, Jae Min Lee, Hee Sue Park, Joon Hee Lee, Youngwon Nam, Namhee Kim, Hye Lim Jung, Hyoung Soo Choi, on behalf of Korean RBC Disorder Working Party

    Blood Res 2022; 57(2): 86-94
    Abstract

    Abstract : Although the prevalence of hereditary hemolytic anemia (HHA) is relatively low in Korea, it has been gradually increasing in recent decades due to increment in the proportions of hemoglobinopathies from immigrants of South East Asia, raising awareness of the disease among clinicians, and advances in diagnostic technology. As such, the red blood cell (RBC) Disorder Working Party (WP), previously called HHA WP, of the Korean Society of Hematology (KSH) developed the Korean Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for the diagnosis of HHA in 2007. These SOPs have been continuously revised and updated following advances in diagnostic technology [e.g., flow cytometric osmotic fragility test (FOFT) and eosin-5-maleimide (EMA) binding test], current methods for membrane protein or enzyme analysis [e.g., liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)], and molecular genetic tests using next-generation sequencing (NGS). However, the diagnosis and treatment of HHA remain challenging as they require considerable experience and understanding of the disease. Therefore, in this new Korean Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Diagnosis of HHA, on behalf of the RBC Disorder WP of KSH, updated guidelines to approach patients suspected of HHA are summarized. NGS is proposed to perform prior to membrane protein or enzyme analysis by LC-MS/MS, UPLC-MS/MS or HPLC techniques due to the availability of gene testing in more laboratories in Korea. We hope that this guideline will be helpful for clinicians in making diagnostic decisions for patients with HHA in Korea.

  • Review Article2022-06-30

    1 2507 502

    Chronic myeloid leukemia: a type of MPN

    Muhammad Ammar Samad, Eman Mahboob, Hussain Mansoor

    Blood Res 2022; 57(2): 95-100

    Abstract : This review article classifies chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) based on cytogenetic analyses and different mutations detected in CML patients. The use of advanced technologies, such as karyotyping, fluorescent in situ hybridization, and comparative genomic hybridization, has allowed us to study CML in detail and observe the different biochemical changes that occur in different CML types. This review also highlights the different types of receptor and signaling pathway mutations that occur in CML.

  • Review Article2022-06-30

    8 2208 525

    Diabetes mellitus and diabetic nephropathy: a review of the literature on hemostatic changes in coagulation and thrombosis

    Ashwag Saleh Alsharidah

    Blood Res 2022; 57(2): 101-105
    Abstract

    Abstract : Vascular complications lead to morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes. Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the main life-threatening problems for these patients, as it is the main cause of end-stage renal disease. This study aimed to measure the clinical effects of diabetes in patients with diabetes and in patients with diabetic nephropathy. Improved hypoglycemic control in patients with diabetes could impressively reduce platelet hyperreactivity, and oxidative stress alters the levels of many coagulation and thrombosis factors, resulting in an abnormal hemostasis and impaired levels of numerous serum markers. Most studies have revealed that coagulation factor levels are high in patients with diabetes and nephrodiabetes. Serum inflammatory factors, and coagulation and endothelial functions are good predictors of diabetic nephropathy. This literature review was conducted with access to scholarly databases and Google Scholar through Qassim University, and it analyzes studies from early 2010 until November 2020. Many studies have inferred that diabetes severely affects hemostasis and increases the risk of cardiovascular disease.

  • Review Article2022-06-30

    6 2556 651

    Multidisciplinary supportive care in systemic light chain amyloidosis

    Bou Zerdan Maroun, Sabine Allam, Chakra P. Chaulagain

    Blood Res 2022; 57(2): 106-116
    Abstract

    Abstract : The immunoglobulin light-chain amyloidosis is a multisystemic disease which manifests by damage to the vital organs by light chain-derived amyloid fibril. Traditionally, the treatment has been directed to the underlying plasma cell clone with or without high dose chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation using melphalan based conditioning. Now with the approval of highly tolerable anti-CD38 monoclonal antibody daratumumab based anti-plasma cell therapy in 2021, high rates of hematologic complete responses are possible even in patients who are otherwise deemed not a candidate for autologous stem cell transplantation. However, despite the progress, there remains a limitation in the strategies to improve symptoms particularly in patients with advanced cardiac involvement, those with nephrotic syndrome and autonomic dysfunction due to underlying systemic AL amyloidosis. The symptoms can be an ordeal for the patients and their caregivers and effective strategies are urgently needed to address them. The supportive care is aimed to counteract the symptoms of the disease and the effects of the treatment on involved organs’ function and preserve patients’ quality of life. Here we discuss multidisciplinary approach in a system-based fashion to address the symptom management in this dreadful disease. In addition to achieving excellent anti-plasma cell disease control, using treatment directed to remove amyloid from the vital organs can theoretically hasten recovery of the involved organs thereby improving symptoms at a faster pace. Ongoing phase III clinical trials of CAEL-101 and Birtamimab will address this question.

Blood Res
Volume 59 2024

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pISSN 2287-979X
eISSN 2288-0011
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