Hyo Jung Kim, Sung-Soo Yoon, Hyeon Seok Eom, Kihyun Kim, Jin Seok Kim, Je-Jung Lee, Soo-Mee Bang, Chang-Ki Min, Joon Seong Park, Jae-Hoon Lee, and Korean Multiple Myeloma Working PartyBlood Res 2015; 50(1): 7-18
Abstract : Multiple myeloma (MM) is the third most common hematologic malignancy in Korea. Historically, the incidence of MM in Korea has been lower than that in Western populations, although there is growing evidence that the incidence of MM in Asian populations, including Korea, is increasing rapidly. Despite advances in the management of MM, patients will ultimately relapse or become refractory to their current treatment, and alternative therapeutic options are required in the relapsed/refractory setting. In Korea, although lenalidomide/dexamethasone is indicated for the treatment of relapsed or refractory MM (RRMM) in patients who have received at least one prior therapy, lenalidomide is reimbursable specifically only in patients with RRMM who have failed bortezomib-based treatment. Based on evidence from pivotal multinational clinical trials as well as recent studies in Asia, including Korea, lenalidomide/dexamethasone is an effective treatment option for patients with RRMM, regardless of age or disease status. Adverse events associated with lenalidomide/dexamethasone, including hematologic toxicity, venous thromboembolism, fatigue, rash, infection, and muscle cramps, are largely predictable and preventable/manageable with appropriate patient monitoring and/or the use of standard supportive medication and dose adjustment/interruption. Lenalidomide/dexamethasone provides an optimal response when used at first relapse, and treatment should be continued long term until disease progression. With appropriate modification of the lenalidomide starting dose, lenalidomide/dexamethasone is effective in patients with renal impairment and/or cytopenia. This review presents updated evidence from the published clinical literature and provides recommendations from an expert panel of Korean physicians regarding the use of lenalidomide/dexamethasone in patients with RRMM.
Valeria Visconte, Ramon V. Tiu, and Heesun J. RogersBlood Res 2014; 49(4): 216-227
Abstract : Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a group of clonal disorders arising from hematopoietic stem cells generally characterized by inefficient hematopoiesis, dysplasia in one or more myeloid cell lineages, and variable degrees of cytopenias. Most MDS patients are diagnosed in their late 60s to early 70s. The estimated incidence of MDS in the United States and in Europe are 4.3 and 1.8 per 100,000 individuals per year, respectively with lower rates reported in some Asian countries and less well estimated in other parts of the world. Evolution to acute myeloid leukemia can occur in 10-15% of MDS patients. Three drugs are currently approved for the treatment of patients with MDS: immunomodulatory agents (lenalidomide), and hypomethylating therapy [HMT (decitabine and 5-azacytidine)]. All patients will eventually lose their response to therapy, and the survival outcome of MDS patients is poor (median survival of 4.5 months) especially for patients who fail (refractory/relapsed) HMT. The only potential curative treatment for MDS is hematopoietic cell transplantation. Genomic/chromosomal instability and various mechanisms contribute to the pathogenesis and prognosis of the disease. High throughput genetic technologies like single nucleotide polymorphism array analysis and next generation sequencing technologies have uncovered novel genetic alterations and increased our knowledge of MDS pathogenesis. We will review various genetic and non-genetic causes that are involved in the pathogenesis of MDS.
Changhoon Yoo, Dok Hyun Yoon, and Cheolwon SuhBlood Res 2014; 49(3): 148-153
Abstract : Beta-2 microglobulin is synthesized in all nucleated cells and forms the light chain subunit of the major histocompatibility complex class I antigen. Despite its potential role as a convenient and non-invasive prognostic indicator in malignant lymphomas, the influence of serum β2 microglobulin is currently underestimated, and therapeutic decision making is rarely affected by this marker. Recent studies that included relatively large numbers of patients with specific histologic subtypes showed that serum β2 microglobulin is a potent prognostic marker in malignant lymphomas. In follicular lymphoma, this effort led to the incorporation of serum β2 microglobulin as an indicator in a new prognostic model. In this review, we summarize the current evidence supporting the role of serum β2 microglobulin as a prognostic factor in patients with malignant lymphoma and discuss perspectives for future investigations.
Megan O. Nakashima, and Heesun J. RogersBlood Res 2014; 49(2): 85-94
Abstract : Hypercoagulability can result from a variety of inherited and, more commonly, acquired conditions. Testing for the underlying cause of thrombosis in a patient is complicated both by the number and variety of clinical conditions that can cause hypercoagulability as well as the many potential assay interferences. Using an algorithmic approach to hypercoagulability testing provides the ability to tailor assay selection to the clinical scenario. It also reduces the number of unnecessary tests performed, saving cost and time, and preventing potential false results. New oral anticoagulants are powerful tools for managing hypercoagulable patients; however, their use introduces new challenges in terms of test interpretation and therapeutic monitoring. The coagulation laboratory plays an essential role in testing for and treating hypercoagulable states. The input of laboratory professionals is necessary to guide appropriate testing and synthesize interpretation of results.
Changsung KimBlood Res 2014; 49(1): 7-14
Abstract : Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology has shown us great hope to treat various human diseases which have been known as untreatable and further endows personalized medicine for future therapy without ethical issues and immunological rejection which embryonic stem cell (hES) treatment has faced. It has been agreed that iPSCs knowledge can be harnessed from disease modeling which mimics human pathological development rather than trials utilizing conventional rodent and cell lines. Now, we can routinely generate iPSC from patient specific cell sources, such as skin fibroblast, hair follicle cells, patient blood samples and even urine containing small amount of epithelial cells. iPSC has both similarity and dissimilarity to hES. iPSC is similar enough to regenerate tissue and even full organism as ES does, however what we want for therapeutic advantage is limited to regenerated tissue and lineage specific differentiation. Depending on the lineage and type of cells, both tissue memory containing (DNA rearrangement/epigenetics) and non-containing iPSC can be generated. This makes iPSC even better choice to perform disease modeling as well as cell based therapy. Tissue memory containing iPSC from mature leukocytes would be beneficial for curing cancer and infectious disease. In this review, the benefit of iPSC for translational approaches will be presented.
Antonio Mori, Sara Deola, Luciano Xumerle, Vladan Mijatovic, Giovanni Malerba, and Vladia MonsurròBlood Res 2013; 48(4): 242-249
Abstract : One of the hallmarks of the adaptive immune system is the specificity of B and T cell receptors. Thanks to somatic recombination, a large repertoire of receptors can be generated within an individual that guarantee the recognition of a vast number of antigens. Monoclonal antibodies have limited applicability, given the high degree of diversity among these receptors, in BCR and TCR monitoring. Furthermore, with regard to cancer, better characterization of complex genomes and the ability to monitor tumor-specific cryptic mutations or translocations are needed to develop better tailored therapies. Novel technologies, by enhancing the ability of BCR and TCR monitoring, can help in the search for minimal residual disease during hematological malignancy diagnosis and follow-up, and can aid in improving bone marrow transplantation techniques. Recently, a novel technology known as next generation sequencing has been developed; this allows the recognition of unique sequences and provides depth of coverage, heterogeneity, and accuracy of sequencing. This provides a powerful tool that, along with microarray analysis for gene expression, may become integral in resolving the remaining key problems in hematology. This review describes the state of the art of this novel technology, its application in the immunological and hematological fields, and the possible benefits it will provide for the hematology and immunology community.
Cheolwon Suh, Won Seog Kim, Jin Seok Kim, and Byeong-Bae ParkBlood Res 2013; 48(3): 171-177
Abstract : The Consortium for Improving Survival of Lymphoma (CISL) in Korean Society of Hematology Lymphoma Working Party had first meeting in February, 2006 with 10 institutions and 12 members. Now CISL comprised of 64 centers. CISL has concentrated research activity on lymphomas which are relatively frequent in Korea and has tried to give favors for the Korean lymphoma patients. CISL has conducted more than 30 retrospective studies to evaluate Korean peculiar lymphoma subtypes. More than 30 prospective trials have been being performed for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, marginal zone lymphoma, extra-nodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, and so on. The first prospective trial for advanced marginal zone lymphoma has led to use Rituximab containing chemotherapy with the re-imbursement of health insurance in Korea. The multi-center trials of the CISL with new therapeutic modalities will improve further the survival of lymphoma patients not only quantitatively but also qualitatively.
Woan-Sang Kim, Sangho Lee, and Young-sup YoonBlood Res 2013; 48(2): 76-86
Abstract : While bone marrow (BM)-derived cells have been comprehensively studied for their propitious pre-clinical results, clinical trials have shown controversial outcomes. Unlike previously acknowledged, more recent studies have now confirmed that humoral and paracrine effects are the key mechanisms for tissue regeneration and functional recovery, instead of transdifferentiation of BM-derived cells into cardiovascular tissues. The progression of the understanding of BM-derived cells has further led to exploring efficient methods to isolate and obtain, without mobilization, sufficient number of cell populations that would eventually have a higher therapeutic potential. As such, hematopoietic CD31+ cells, prevalent in both bone marrow and peripheral blood, have been discovered, in recent studies, to have angiogenic and vasculogenic activities and to show strong potential for therapeutic neovascularization in ischemic tissues. This article will discuss recent advancement on BM-derived cell therapy and the implication of newly discovered CD31+ cells.
Yoo-Jin Kim, Jun Ho Jang, Jae-Yong Kwak, Je-Hwan Lee, and Hyeoung-Joon KimBlood Res 2013; 48(2): 87-98
Abstract : Azacitidine is recommended for patients with higher-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) who are not eligible for intensive therapy or for patients with lower-risk MDS who have thrombocytopenia or neutropenia or have anemia that is unresponsive to other therapies. However, standard treatment with azacitidine has not been optimized and many issues about the use of azacitidine remain unresolved. The use of azacitidine is expanding rapidly, but limited comparative clinical trial data are available to (i) define the optimal use of azacitidine in patients with higher-risk MDS or around the time of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, (ii) identify those patients with lower-risk MDS who may benefit from treatment, and (iii) guide physicians on alternative therapies after treatment failure. Increasing evidence suggests that the clinical features, prognostic factors, and cytogenetic profiles of patients with MDS in Asia differ significantly from those of patients in Western countries, so the aim of this review is to summarize the evidence and provide practical recommendations on the use of azacitidine in patients with MDS in the Republic of Korea. Evidence considered in this review is based on published clinical data and on the clinical experience of an expert panel from the acute myeloid leukemia/MDS Working Party of the Korean Society of Hematology.
Guido D'AngeloBlood Res 2013; 48(1): 10-15
Abstract : This review summarizes the central role of hepcidin in the iron homeostasis mechanism, the molecular mechanism that can alter hepcidin expression, the relationship between hepcidin and erythropoiesis, and the pathogenetic role of hepcidin in different types of anemia. In addition, the usefulness of hepcidin dosage is highlighted, including the problems associated with analytical methods currently used as well as the measures of its molecular isoforms. Considering the central role of hepcidin in iron arrangement, it is reasonable to ponder its therapeutic use mainly in cases of iron overload. Further clinical trials are required before implementation.
Nisha Marwah, Manali Satiza, Niti Dalal, Sudhir Atri, Monika Gupta, Sunita Singh, Rajeev SenBlood Res 2021;56: 26-30
Junshik Hong, Seo-Yeon Ahn, Yoo Jin Lee, Ji Hyun Lee, Jung Woo Han, Kyoung Ha Kim, Ho-Young Yhim, Seung-Hyun Nam, Hee-Jin Kim, Jaewoo Song, Sung-Hyun Kim, Soo-Mee Bang, Jin Seok Kim, Yeung-Chul Mun, Sung Hwa Bae, Hyun Kyung Kim, Seongsoo Jang, Rojin Park, Hyoung Soo Choi, Inho Kim, Doyeun Oh; on behalf of the Korean Society of Hematology Thrombosis and Hemostasis Working PartyBlood Res 2021;56: 6-16
Yu Ri Kim, Dae-Young KimBlood Res 2021;56: S17-S25
Seyed Mohammad Sadegh Pezeshki, Najmadin Saki, Mehran Varnaseri Ghandali, Alireza Ekrami, Arshid Yousefi AvarvandBlood Res 2021;56: 38-43