Blood Res 2019; 54(1): 3-3  https://doi.org/10.5045/br.2019.54.1.3
Breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma
Lucile Baseggio1*, Alexandra Travers-Glehen2, Emmanuel Bachy3, and Camille Laurent4

1Laboratoire d'Hématologie Biologique, Groupement Hospitalier Lyon-Sud/Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, France.

2Service d'Anatomie Pathologique, Groupement Hospitalier Lyon-Sud/Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, France.

3Service d'Hématologie Clinique, Groupement Hospitalier Lyon-Sud/Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, France.

4Service d'Anatomie Pathologique, Institut Universitaire du Cancer de Toulouse-Oncopole, Toulouse, France.

Correspondence to: Correspondence to Lucile Baseggio, Ph.D., Laboratoire d'Hématologie Biologique, Groupement Hospitalier Lyon-Sud/Hospices Civils de Lyon, 69002 Lyon, France, lucile.baseggio@chu-lyon.fr
Received: August 8, 2018; Revised: September 14, 2018; Accepted: September 18, 2018; Published online: March 21, 2019.
© The Korean Journal of Hematology. All rights reserved.

cc This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
 

figure

A 73-year-old woman with bilateral breast implants following mastectomies for cancer and a previous right-sided implant revision due to implant rupture presented to us with ultrasound-confirmed fluid accumulation around the left implant, without lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, or B symptoms.

Cytological analysis of the seroma fluid (A, cytocentrifuge preparation; MGG stain, ×100) showed medium to large cells with anaplastic morphology, basophilic cytoplasm, round to more irregular nuclei, and clumped or dispersed chromatin with rare small nuclei. Cytoblock immunohistochemistry (IHC) stained negative for ALK and positive for CD3, CD30, and TIA-1 (B, C). Flow cytometry (FCM) immunophenotyping of the fluid identified large CD4+ T-cells with aberrant phenotype (failed CD3/CD7 and partial CD5 expression); CD30 and HLA-DR were strongly expressed, as well as cytoplasmic cytotoxic markers TIA1, granzyme B, and perforin [D, lymphoma T-cells (purple), residual T-cells (blue)]. Cellular morphology and immunologic profile pointed to a diagnosis of breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (BIA-ALCL).

BIA-ALCL, recently recognized in the 2016 World Health Organization Classification of Lymphomas, is often curable when diagnosed early. As recommended by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines, appropriate cytological examination of seroma fluid utilizing FCM and IHC, including CD30 and ALK staining, appears crucial to its diagnosis.



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