Blood Res 2016; 51(4): 274-278  https://doi.org/10.5045/br.2016.51.4.274
Allelic variance among ABO blood group genotypes in a population from the western region of Saudi Arabia
Abdularahman B.O. Mohamed1, Salwa Ibrahim Hindawi2, Sameer Al-harthi1, Qamre Alam3, Mohammad Zubair Alam3, Absarul Haque3, Waseem Ahmad4, Ghazi A Damanhouri2,3
1Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, 2Faculty of Medicine, Department of Hematology, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, 3King Fahd Medical Research, King Abdulaziz University, 4Center of Excellence in Genomic Medicine, KFMRC, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Correspondence to: Abdularahman B.O. Mohamed, M.D.
Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, P.O Box 200805, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
E-mail: Abdulrahman,badwi@gmail.com
Received: July 14, 2016; Revised: November 20, 2016; Accepted: November 22, 2016; Published online: December 31, 2016.
© The Korean Journal of Hematology. All rights reserved.

cc This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract
Background
Characterization of the ABO blood group at the phenotype and genotype levels is clinically essential for transfusion, forensics, and population studies. This study elucidated ABO phenotypes and genotypes, and performed an evaluation of their distribution in individuals from the western region of Saudi Arabia.
Methods
One-hundred and seven samples underwent standard serological techniques for ABO blood group phenotype analysis. ABO alleles and genotypes were identified using multiplex polymerase chain reaction, and electrophoretic analysis was performed to evaluate the highly polymorphic ABO locus.
Results
A phenotype distribution of 37.4%, 30.8%, 24.3%, and 7.5% was found for blood groups O, A, B, and AB respectively in our study cohort. Genotype analysis identified 10 genotype combinations with the O01/O02 and A102/O02 genotypes being the most frequent with frequencies of 33.6% and 14.95%, respectively. Common genotypes such as A101/A101A101/A102, A101/B101B101/B101, and O01/O01 were not detected. Similarly, the rare genotypes, cis-AB01/O02, cis-AB01/O01, and cis-AB01/A102 were not found in our cohort. The most frequently observed allele was O02 (35.98%) followed by the A102 allele (17.76%). Furthermore, our findings are discussed in reference to ABO allele and genotype frequencies found in other ethnic groups.
Conclusion
The study has a significant implication on the management of blood bank and transfusion services in Saudi Arabian patients.
Keywords: ABO blood-group system, Alleles, Genotype, Saudi Arabia


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